BP says no more oil going into Gulf

•July 16, 2010 • Leave a Comment

source: Associated Press

NEW ORLEANS (AP) — BP says oil has stopped leaking into the Gulf for the first time since April.

BP has been slowly dialing down the flow as part of a test on a new cap. Engineers are now monitoring the pressure to see if the busted well holds.

THIS IS A BREAKING NEWS UPDATE. Check back soon for further information. AP’s earlier story is below.

NEW ORLEANS (AP) — BP engineers were back to the slow work of trying to choke the Gulf of Mexico oil gusher Thursday with an untested cap, slowly dialing down the flow.

The latest step — just like other developments in the monthslong environmental crisis will take several hours to complete. If it works, BP believes no oil will be leaking into the water for the first time.

Engineers got to work after replacing a leaky pipe. Kent Wells, a BP PLC vice president, said at a news briefing in Houston that the leak was found on the side of the towering, 75-ton capping stack and it was fixed by replacing the assembly, called a “choke line.”

The work sent the oil giant back to restarting preparations for testing whether the cap can stop the oil without blowing a new leak in the well. If it works, the cap will be a temporary fix until BP can drill into the gusher to plug it for good from underground, where the seal will hold better.

“Bear with us,” Wells said.

With the disaster nearly three months old, the man in charge of the $20 billion fund set up by BP to pay individuals and business for their losses said it will start making payments in early August.

Ken Feinberg, who was in charge of the compensation paid to families of victims in the Sept. 11 terrorists attacks, told a meeting of government officials in Louisiana that he expected a seamless transition from BP management of claims to his administration.

On the Gulf seabed, the leak was discovered after two of the three valves on the cap that can open or shut the device had been closed, bringing BP and government scientists, who are also watching, tantalizingly close to starting a 48-hour test of how the well and cap withstand the pressure.

Wells had warned that the process of getting ready and then choking the oil a mile below the sea, at a depth only submarine robots can reach, consisted of many precise, individual steps.

“Any one of these steps can take longer than anticipated,” Wells said Wednesday, before the leak disrupted work.

Retired Coast Guard Adm. Thad Allen, the Obama administration’s point man on the disaster, said at a briefing it’s not clear yet whether the cap, which was mounted on the well Monday, will ultimately be used to shut in the oil or to channel it through pipes to collection ships overhead.

“I have a high degree of confidence we can substantially decrease the oil coming into the environment,” Allen said.

The cap remains a temporary fix, he said, until one of two relief wells BP is drilling can reach the gusher underground and plug it permanently with heavy drilling mud and cement.

“Make no mistake, the number one goal is to kill the well … to stop it at the source,” he said.

The test will involve closing off all three openings in the cap to the Gulf, in theory stopping the oil leaking into the Gulf. BP will be monitoring pressure under the cap. High pressure is good, because it shows there’s only a single leak. Low pressure, below 6,000 pounds per square inch or so, could mean more leaks farther down in the well.

BP expects to keep the oil trapped in the cap for 48 hours before it decides if the approach is working.

With the leaking pipe replaced, BP had to start from a few steps back to resume preparations for the test.

Preparations included letting more oil pour out of the cap temporarily and turning off a pipe that had been sending some of the oil to a collection ship, so that the full force of all the erupting crude would go into the cap. Engineers also had to recheck equipment and move undersea robots that perform the work back into position.

Wells was hesitant to give a firm timeframe for when the test could start, but expected it to be Thursday.

“We’re going to keep moving forward with this,” Wells said.

Allen said a committee of scientists and engineers will monitor the results and assess every six hours, and end the test after 48 hours to evaluate the findings.

“I was gung-ho for this test and I remain gung-ho for this test,” he said Wednesday.

If the cap works, it will enable BP to stop the oil from gushing into the sea, either by holding all the oil inside the well machinery like a stopper or, if the pressure is too great, channeling some through lines to as many as four collection ships.

Allen said the testing will also help prepare for the hoped-for permanent fix by the relief wells. The mapping of the sea floor that was done to prepare for the cap test and the pressure readings will also help them determine how much mud and cement will be needed to seal off the well underground.

Drill work was stopped on one relief well because it was not clear what effect the testing of the cap could have on it. Work on the other relief well had already been stopped according to plan.

The government estimates 1.5 million to 2.5 million gallons are leaking every day.

As of Thursday, the 86th day of the disaster, between 93.5 million and 184.3 million gallons of oil had spewed into the Gulf since the Deepwater Horizon rig leased by BP exploded April 20, killing 11 workers.

___

Apa yang Sudah Saya Lakukan untuk Lingkungan?

•April 30, 2010 • Leave a Comment

Sekedar evaluasi pribadi dan mungkin bisa dijadikan masukan untuk pembaca.

Di RUMAH

– Membuat biopori untuk menampung air hujan menjadi air resapan

–  Tidak menggunakan AC dan memaksimalkan ventilasi dan sirkulasi udara

– Menggunakan popok kain untuk bayi

– Memperbaiki keran yang bocor

– Mematikan alat elektronik yang tidak digunakan

Di KANTOR

– Menghemat penggunaan kertas dan memanfaatkan kertas bekas

– Mengecilkan AC

– Mengurangi penggunaan lampu di siang hari dengan memanfaatkan sinar matahari dari jendela

Yang masih bisa dilakukan:

Di RUMAH

1. Membuat sumur resapan

2. Menggunakan deterjen ramah lingkungan

3. Menggunakan solar cell untuk kebutuhan  listrik di rumah

Quality Control Laboratorium : Basic Sediment and Water

•April 24, 2010 • 2 Comments

Jurnal 24 APril 2010

Hari ini kami mengikuti pekerjaan di Quality Control Laboratorium. bermain-main sambil belajar dengan alat uji sampel sentrifugal untuk mendapatkan presentase kandungan air dan partikel2 sedimen tanah dalam minyak mentah yang kami terima dari platform proses-produksi. istilah presentase kandungan air & sedimen yang terkandung dalam minyak mentah itu dikenal dengan BS&W (Basic Sediment and Water; orang2 biasanya menyebutnya be-es-dabel-yu). pengukuran ini berguna untuk memastikan kemurnian minyak mentah yang kita kirim ke tanker pembeli. tanker pembeli hanya mau menerima minyak mentah dengan nilai BS&W yang sangat kecil, bahkan kalo bisa mencapai nol persen (0 %), atau kita sebut dengan istilah “trace”. pada umumnya, tanker pembeli memiliki toleransi untuk hanya menerima minyak mentah dengan nilai BS&W yang kurang dari 0.2%.

langkah2 untuk mendapatkan nilai presentase BS&W sebenernya sangat sederhana, dan sekilas serupa kayak bikin minuman sirup. berikut langkah2nya:
1. pertama-tama, ambil sampel minyak mentah yang akan diuji ke delam centrifuge tube sehingga memenuhi hingga 50% kapasitasnya.
2. masukkan larutan toluen ke dalam centrigu tube tersebut sehingga memenuhi 100% kapasitasnya. dalam hal ini, toluen berfungsi sebagai pelarut sehingga sampel minyak mentah menjadi lebih encer & homogen sehingga lebih mudah untuk dipisah-pisahkan ketika dilakukan sentrifugasi.
secara fisik, lauran toluen mirip seperti air jernih karena tidak berwarna. namun demikian penanganan terhadap larutan tolune harus ekstra hati-hati, karena selain baunya yang sangat menyengat (termasuk dalam senyawa hidrokarbon aromatik), bikin ngantuk, sensasi melayang, halusinasi, kelelahan dan bikin pusing, dan juga mudah terbakar, toluen ini juga bisa menyebabkan kerusakan kulit dan organ (terutama alat reproduksi) apabila kita terpapar dalam waktu lama ataupun berulang-ulang. toluen yang kita hirup atau masuk melaui kulit, juga bisa terakumulasi dalam hati, ginjal, otak dan darah. oleh karenanya, dalam mengerjakan ini, kami diharuskan mengenakan sarung tangan bahan kimia yang terbuat dari karet PVC, mengenakan safety goggles dan juga mengenakan masker khusus untuk gas & uap toluen.
3. tambahkan 3 tetes larutan F-46 demulsifier ke dalamnya. dalam hal ini, F-46 demulsifier berfungsi larutan pemecah emulsi antara air dan minyak mentah.
4. masukkan centrifuge tube ke dalam alat pemanas hingga temperaturnya mencapai 140° F (60° C). selama proses pemanasan tersebut, centrifuge tube direndam dalam larutan oli tipe Turalix-52. pemanasan ini berfungsi agar larutan2 yang sudah ditambahkan dapat bereaksi secara efektif.
5. setelah temperatur yang diinginkan tercapai, segera pindahkan centrifuge tube ke dalam alat pemutar sentrifugal selama 5 menit. dalam alat tersebut, cetrifuge tube akan diputar dengan kecepatan hingga 1725 rpm. kecepatan ini kurang lebih sebanding dengan kecepatan putar mesin mobil di persneling (gear) gigi dua.
6. setelah 5 menit, maka akan kita dapati bahwa minyak dan partikel2 sedimen tanah telah terpisah ikatannya dengan minyak mentah dan telah berkumpul di dasar centrifuge tube. angka BS&W didapat dari pembacaan skala prosentase yang terdapat di pinggir centrifuge tube. demikianlah…

Penggunaan AC yang Hemat Energi

•February 19, 2010 • Leave a Comment

Sumber: http://www.greenlifestyle.or.id/tips/detail/tips_hemat_penggunaan_ac

Faktanya, lebih dari 50% konsumsi energi listrik di rumah adalah untuk alat penyejuk udara, atau air conditioner (AC). Di kantor, angka ini naik hingga 70%. Sementara, saat ini pemadaman listrik terjadi secara rutin.

Solusinya? Dengan mengurangi penggunaan AC kita tidak hanya bisa menghemat uang, listrik dan memperpanjang umur AC, namun juga ikut membantu agar listrik tidak ‘byar-pet’ terus. Siapa takut?

Kita mulai dari awal.Sebenarnya, apakah kita memang memerlukan AC ini? Kan, solusi yang paling hemat dan ramah lingkungan adalah untuk simpanatau jual ACnya dan buka lebar-lebar jendela kita untuk menikmati AC alam. Kan, fungsi AC adalah untuk menyejukkan ruangan bukan untuk mendinginkan atau apalagi membuat orang beku.

Realitanya, jaman sekarang ini sudah sulit untuk tinggal di rumah di daerah perkotaan yang dibangun dengan menggunakan ventilasi alami, tanpa AC. Seringkali kita terpaksa menggunakan AC karena tidak tahan akan panasnya udara. Untungnya, banyak sekali langkah yang dapat kita terapkan untuk menghemat penggunaan AC.

Tips hemat energi ACBegini caranya:

  • Pilih AC hemat energi
    AC harus mampu menyejukkan ruangan secara cepat. Dengan ukuran evaporator pendingin dan kipas yang lebih besar, maka akan lebih cepat mendinginkan ruangan secara alami dan seimbang.

    >> Cari AC hemat energi
    >> Bagai memilih alat AC yang hemat energi

  • Pilih AC dengan freon yang ramah lingkungan
    Freon adalah bahan cair yang menghasilkan dingin dalam ACnya. Pilih AC dengan freon yang ramah lingkungan, seperti freon hidrokarbon.
  • Tentukan Kapasitas AC (PK)
    Sering terjadi, konsumen membeli AC dengan kapasitas (PK) yang lebih besar dari kebutuhanya, sehingga tidak efisien dan boros energi. Alhasil, tagihanya naik terruusssss! Maka, pilih kapasitas AC yang tepat, dengan acuan kapasitas berkisar antara 600 BTU/jam/m2.
  • Pakai timer agar AC beroperasi hanya pada saat dibutuhkan
    Gimana rasanya saat bangun pagi dalam ruangan yang super dingin sebab AC menyala terus semalaman? Badan pasti terasa gak enak kan?

    AC tidak perlu dipakai sepanjang kita tidur. Sebaiknya hidupkan AC seperempat jam sebelum saat tidur, dan timernya di set selama 1-2 jam mati otomatis. Kalau ACnya sudah mati, ruangnya akan tetap dingin selama beberapa jam kemudian. Untuk siang hari, usahakan mematikan AC, jika akan meninggalkan ruangan dalam waktu relatif lama.

  • Atur suhu AC dengan thermostat
    Untuk aktivitas sehari-hari, atur suhu AC yang paling optimal dari sisi kenyamanan dan pemakaian energi (tidak lebih dingin dari 25 °C), yaitu 3-5°C lebih rendah dari suhu di luar ruangan) . Ingat: setiap kenaikan temperatur 1°C dapat menurunkan konsumsi energi sebesar 3-5% (BPPT). Lumayan!
  • Bersihkan filter AC, coil kondensor dan sirip AC secara teratur, tiap 3 bulan
    Dengan memelihara AC secara rutin, kamu mampu menghemat listrik sampai dengan 20%. Energi yang dikonsumsi peralatan pendingin akan lebih rendah 10% pada kondensor yang tidak terkena sinar matahari secara langsung. Terganggunya sirkulasi udara karena debu yang menumpuk, menyebabkan kondensor mengkonsumsi lebih banyak listrik.
  • Gunakan penutup pada bagian ruangan yang terkena sinar matahari langsung
  • Usahakan pintu, jendela dan ventilasi udara selalu tertutup saat AC menyala.
  • Gunakan lampu ruangan yang memiliki temperatur kerja rendah.
  • Ganti AC yang sudah tua
    Untuk alat AC yang telah berumur lebih dari 10 tahun, pemakaian energi akan lebih besar 30-50% dibandingkan dengan peralatan pendingin dengan teknologi baru.


Belum puas? Coba tips yang berikut

  • gunakan lampu induksi yg tidak panas sehingga beban ac tidak terlalu berat
  • pasang solar chimney
  • naikin plafon, terus di bawah atap taruh material penahan panas
  • rubah jendela supaya lebih lebar, maksimalkan jalusi
  • warna cat tembok, kebiruan mendorong adanya feeling lebih cool daripada misalnya kuning gading
  • pasang ceiling fan
  • rumah dengan dinding dari kayu rasanya lebih sejuk
  • jika terpaksa pakai AC, hindari menempatkan peralatan elektronik di bawah atau di dekat indoor unit…

Sumber: Iwa Garniwa, Tips hemat energy pada Tata Udara; milis Greenlifestyle

Copenhagen climate summit in disarray after ‘Danish text’ leak

•December 9, 2009 • 1 Comment

Perkembangan terbaru pada Copenhagen Climate Summit 2009 mengenai bocornya  Danish Text yang sangat memihak negara maju dan mengesampingkan peran PBB dalam mengatasi permasalahan iklim global sebagaimana disampaikan dalam surat kabar The Guardian

http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2009/dec/08/copenhagen-climate-summit-disarray-danish-text

Developing countries react furiously to leaked draft agreement that would hand more power to rich nations, sideline the UN’s negotiating role and abandon the Kyoto protocol

The UN Copenhagen climate talks are in disarray today after developing countries reacted furiously to leaked documents that show world leaders will next week be asked to sign an agreement that hands more power to rich countries and sidelines the UN’s role in all future climate change negotiations.

The document is also being interpreted by developing countries as setting unequal limits on per capita carbon emissions for developed and developing countries in 2050; meaning that people in rich countries would be permitted to emit nearly twice as much under the proposals.

The so-called Danish text, a secret draft agreement worked on by a group of individuals known as “the circle of commitment” – but understood to include the UK, US and Denmark – has only been shown to a handful of countries since it was finalised this week.

The agreement, leaked to the Guardian, is a departure from the Kyoto protocol‘s principle that rich nations, which have emitted the bulk of the CO2, should take on firm and binding commitments to reduce greenhouse gases, while poorer nations were not compelled to act. The draft hands effective control of climate change finance to the World Bank; would abandon the Kyoto protocol – the only legally binding treaty that the world has on emissions reductions; and would make any money to help poor countries adapt to climate change dependent on them taking a range of actions.

The document was described last night by one senior diplomat as “a very dangerous document for developing countries. It is a fundamental reworking of the UN balance of obligations. It is to be superimposed without discussion on the talks”.

A confidential analysis of the text by developing countries also seen by the Guardian shows deep unease over details of the text. In particular, it is understood to:

• Force developing countries to agree to specific emission cuts and measures that were not part of the original UN agreement;

• Divide poor countries further by creating a new category of developing countries called “the most vulnerable”;

• Weaken the UN’s role in handling climate finance;

• Not allow poor countries to emit more than 1.44 tonnes of carbon per person by 2050, while allowing rich countries to emit 2.67 tonnes.

Developing countries that have seen the text are understood to be furious that it is being promoted by rich countries without their knowledge and without discussion in the negotiations.

“It is being done in secret. Clearly the intention is to get [Barack] Obama and the leaders of other rich countries to muscle it through when they arrive next week. It effectively is the end of the UN process,” said one diplomat, who asked to remain nameless.

Antonio Hill, climate policy adviser for Oxfam International, said: “This is only a draft but it highlights the risk that when the big countries come together, the small ones get hurting. On every count the emission cuts need to be scaled up. It allows too many loopholes and does not suggest anything like the 40% cuts that science is saying is needed.”

Hill continued: “It proposes a green fund to be run by a board but the big risk is that it will run by the World Bank and the Global Environment Facility [a partnership of 10 agencies including the World Bank and the UN Environment Programme] and not the UN. That would be a step backwards, and it tries to put constraints on developing countries when none were negotiated in earlier UN climate talks.”

The text was intended by Denmark and rich countries to be a working framework, which would be adapted by countries over the next week. It is particularly inflammatory because it sidelines the UN negotiating process and suggests that rich countries are desperate for world leaders to have a text to work from when they arrive next week.

Few numbers or figures are included in the text because these would be filled in later by world leaders. However, it seeks to hold temperature rises to 2C and mentions the sum of $10bn a year to help poor countries adapt to climate change from 2012-15.

Quake Basics: Learning the Quake Code

•October 1, 2009 • Leave a Comment

Quake Basics: Learning the Quake Code

Source: http://thejakartaglobe.com/home/quake-basics-learning-the-quake-code/328034

Evakuasi melalui tangga darurat harus dilakukan dengan tenang dan tidak panik

Evakuasi melalui tangga darurat harus dilakukan dengan tenang dan tidak panik

Also in this series:
What to Do in an Earthquake
Survivors Talk About Their Quake Experiences

Wisnu Widjaja works for the National Disaster Management Agency (BNPB). On Wednesday, at 2:55 p.m., the Jakarta resident was driving home from Bandung along the toll road when he thought a tire had gone flat. It was an earthquake, he realized as he pulled over.

Once Wisnu arrived home, he turned on the television for news. As someone working in the disaster management field, he realized one thing: Jakarta residents were not prepared for an earthquake.

“Most of the victims in Jakarta were injured out of their own doing,” said Wisnu, who is the director of the BNPB’s disaster risk reduction division.

He heard on the news that people had streamed out of buildings in panic and chaos, causing many injuries.“Someone broke a leg, another was severely injured during a stampede,” he said. “People were standing in the lobbies of the buildings, which is totally the wrong thing to do,” Wisnu said. “Jakarta people are not ready for an earthquake because they lack the knowledge of how do deal with it.”

Quakes like the 7.3-magnitude temblor that struck Java Island on Wednesday, killing at least 57 people and shaking buildings in the capital Jakarta, are inevitable. Indonesia’s thousands of islands are scattered along a belt of volcanic and seismic activity known as the Pacific “Ring of Fire,” which makes them especially vulnerable. Nevertheless, the risks can be substantially reduced with planning.

Fauzi, the head of the earthquake and tsunami unit of the Meteorology and Geophysics Agency (BMG), said the probability of a big quake hitting Jakarta was very low because it did not lie on a fault line, meaning it would never be at the epicenter of an earthquake.

“There is no epicenter in Jakarta,” he stressed.

Fauzi said that what people in Jakarta had felt on Wednesday were the rumblings of the quake as it spread out from the epicenter in Tasikmalaya, West Java, and their lives had probably not been in danger.

Dwi Haryadi, an officer with the disaster management division of the Indonesian Red Cross (PMI), said it was important to relax and remain calm during an earthquake.

If people panicked, others might pick up on it, he said.

“If you have time, evacuate,” he said. “If you don’t, then find a place to protect yourself.”

Wisnu of the disaster management agency said it was crucial to understand that “tremors don’t kill. What inflicts damage is falling objects.”

He said the first thing to do in a quake was to find a way to protect yourself from falling objects, but then to stay still during the tremor.

“Since the head is the most vulnerable part of our body, we need to find items that can protect it,” he said. “When you’re in a house, you can use things like a pillow, but preferably something more solid. When you’re in a building, you can hide under a table.”

People should also locate hazards in their surroundings, especially things that are taller than them, or in higher places, Wisnu said.

“If you’re in a house or a building, avoid things like cabinets, which might fall on you,” he said. “If you’re outside, look for things like trees, billboards, electricity poles, which could also fall.”

Wisnu said residential buildings of one or two floors generally collapsed vertically, meaning that people inside were in danger of being crushed, but people standing out in the yard or the street were likely to be safe.

Therefore, Wisnu said, leaving the house was the best measure.

He said people who were inside tall buildings at the time of a quake shouldn’t remain near the building once they had exited.

“If an earthquake is big enough, there will be things falling down from the building, like shards of glass,” he said.

“People should get as far away as they can from the building to an open space.”

Dwi from the Red Cross said that after not panicking, finding the best exit route was the most important thing.

“Sometimes when we’re in a building, we don’t know the evacuation route,” he said.

He said people should always look for the emergency exit staircase, and never go down to the ground level in an elevator.

Dwi stressed the importance of leaving the building in an orderly way. “Sometimes the process of evacuation is what causes all the injuries,” he said.

“The space is narrow, people are in a rush, they start pushing and stepping on each other.”

Wisnu said that many people overestimated the duration of earthquakes. “The duration is usually short, a matter of seconds, and not minutes,” he said.

He said that during a quake, people should not try to leave the room, but try to find protection instead. After the tremor had stopped, then people could leave the room. “There’s nothing much we can do within that time. But if we run, it will create further chaos,” Wisnu said.

Dwi said that different people had different capabilities in quakes.

There will be people who are more vulnerable and will need assistance, such as the elderly, pregnant women and small children, he said.

“People who are more capable should help those less capable,” Dwi said.

Both Dwi and Wisnu said that Indonesia had learned a lot since the Indian Ocean tsunami tragedy in 2004.

“After the 2004 tsunami, Indonesia has fared much better in terms of disaster management,” Dwi said. “There are more publications and training programs available.”

Wisnu, however, said that more progress was still necessary.

“The problem is that people only care when a disaster happens,” he said. “After a while, they just get blase and forget about it.”

Tempat Sampah Dipilah

•September 17, 2009 • Leave a Comment
Pemilahan Sampah Harus dimulai dari hulu-nya, untuk itu tempat pembuangan sampah yang dipilah seperti ini harus segera disebarluaskan dan ditempatkan di fasilitas umum strategis; banyak orang membuang sampah. Bukan sekedar titik keramaian dimana tempat sampah bisa dilihat oleh banyak orang

Pemilahan Sampah Harus dimulai dari hulu-nya, untuk itu tempat pembuangan sampah yang dipilah seperti ini harus segera disebarluaskan dan ditempatkan di fasilitas umum strategis; banyak orang membuang sampah. Bukan sekedar titik keramaian dimana tempat sampah bisa 'dilihat' oleh banyak orang